West Bengal, India's Sunderban National Park

In India, there is a national park, a tiger reserve, and a biosphere reserve. Every tiger enthusiast visiting India should visit the Sundarbans National Park to get the best views of this majestic species along the Ganges delta in India and Bangladesh. With the presence of the Sunderi tree species, the delta is closely crusted with Mangrove forests to refurbish with the most ardent Sunderban area along the Gangetic plains, which justifies the name; to mean "the beautiful forest" and is being recognised as one of the largest reserves for Bengal Tigers. The Sundarbans, a UNESCO World Heritage site in India, comprise 4624 square kilometres and are home to a variety of bird, reptile, and invertebrate species, including the saltwater crocodile. In 1973, the current Sundarbans National Park was designated as the core area of the Sundarbans Tiger Reserve, and in 1977, it was designated as a wildlife sanctuary. It was designated as a National Park on May 4, 1984.

The park, which is situated between 30° 24' - 30° 28' N latitude and 77° 40' - 77° 44' E longitude in West Bengal, has an average altitude of 7.5 m and is crisscrossed by various Ganges tributaries. The Sundarbans National Park also contains the world's biggest estuarine mangrove forest, which adds to the region's appeal.
The Sundarbans area's average temperature ranges from 20 to 48 degrees Celsius, with heavy rains and humidity levels as high as 80 percent due to its proximity to the Bay of Bengal. During the months of mid-June to mid-September, monsoons can be expected



The Sundarbans, the world's largest delta and mangrove swamp, is formed by the confluence of three rivers: the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and the Meghna. It is also the world's largest estuary sanctuary. The land that served as a haven for exiles in the 13th century has now been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is the most well-known location for tiger protection as part of the Tiger Project.
Sundarbans Tiger Reserve was first known as Sundarbans Tiger Reserve in 1973, when it was a part of the old 24 Parganas division. Because the area was densely forested with mangroves and swampy islands, it was ideal for tiger habitat, and the tiger project was launched in 2004 as a scientific study project.
The Save the Tiger Fund and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service generously gave cash to support the initial phase of study and to collect data on tiger ecology, allowing the initiative to move forward in a more progressive manner. And today, with the sighting of royal tigers in Bengal, this tiger conservation initiative in the Sunderban area is definitely rocking the dense masses. There are currently 400 Royal Bengal tigers and 30,000 spotted deer in the area, according to estimates. Because of the abundance of Sundari trees, the forest is known as the 'Sunderban.'



The Sundarbans' mangrove vegetation is made up of 64 plant species that can tolerate estuarine conditions and saline precipitation due to tidal influences. The flaming red leaves of the Genwa (Excoecariaagallocha), the crab-like red blossoms of the Kankra (Bruguieragymnorrhiza), and the yellow flowers of the Khalsi (Aegicerascorniculatum) may all be seen in the months of April and May. Dhundal (or cannonball mangrove, Xylocarpusgranatum), Passur (Xylocarpusmekongensis), Garjan (Rhizophora spp. ), Sundari (Heritierafomes), and Goran are some of the other flora and trees that can be seen in the park (Ceriopsdecandra).



The Sundarbans, which are located in the coastal deltas of the Bay of Bengal's opening, have a complicated geological and hydrological character, as well as significant climate risks. The Sundarbans, a region of mangrove forests, features a diverse flora and faunal range, resulting in an unrivalled environment for this Biosphere Reserve. Due to illogical and excessive human interferences, the natural environment and coastal ecosystem of this Biosphere Reserve and World Heritage Site are in danger of physical calamity. This might be the development plan for preserving this unique coastal ecology and ecosystem under conservation and environmental control.
More than 400 tigers live in the Sundarbans forest. The Royal Bengal Tigers are known for their man-eating proclivities and have developed a unique characteristic of swimming in saline waterways. Between November and February, tigers might be observed sunning on the riverbanks.
Apart from the Royal Bengal Tiger, the Sundarbans are home to Fishing Cats, Leopard Cats, Macaques, Wild Boar, Indian Grey Mongoose, Fox, Jungle Cat, Flying Fox, Pangolin, and Chital.


Locations of Interest

Sajnekhali - is best renowned for its bird sanctuary and is the finest spot to stay if you want to experience comfortable accommodations. There is a Mango Interpretation Center here, as well as other observation towers in various zones such as Sajnekhali, Sudhanyakhali, Netidhopan, Haldi, and a number of other areas where tourists can get excellent views of the royal tigers.
The Bhagbatpur Crocodile Project-  is a crocodile breeding farm in the Bhagbatpur area, easily accessible from Namkhana, and is home to the world's largest estuary crocodile hatchery.
Piyali Island - the Sundarbans' entryway, is being developed as a tourism complex and is located 72 kilometres from Kolkata, adjacent to Sajnekhali. The Piyali River runs through the island before connecting with the Matla River. People can go on a nature walk, take a boat ride, go bird watching, and enjoy the village life on Piyali Island.
Lothian Island Bird Sanctuary -  is one of the most well-known wildlife sanctuaries in the area, located in West Bengal's South 24 Parganas district. The Black-Capped Kingfisher, Curlew, White-Bellied Sea-Eagle, Tern, and Whimbrel are among the many bird species found on Lothian Island.
Hiran Point - located in the southern part of the Sundarbans and in the Khulna district, is a relaxing spot surrounded on three sides by beautiful water bodies. It is one of the most popular Sundarbans attractions.
Halliday Island - Located in the Sundarbans' south zone, Halliday Island attracts a large number of tourists who come to see the barking deer that live nearby.
Tin Kona Island - another famous destination for spotting wildlife in the Sundarbans zone, Tin Kona Island is known for its abundant tigers and deer, which symbolise the area's true nature.